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Screening Tools
Screening for
Sleep Disorders
, a Webcast for PCPs
Play a vital role in identifying sleep-related disorders
in your patients.
Screening Tools


The table below lists screening tools used by physicians and consumers to assist in the diagnosis of sleep disorders. The table includes information and recommended readings on validated instruments for both adult and pediatric populations. Additionally, many informal screening questionnaires, sleep logs and patient handouts on a variety of sleep related topics are available online.


The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)
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The ESS presents various daily situations and asks the responder to rate the degree of sleepiness in each circumstance.
The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS)
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The SSS is used to assess sleepiness or alertness at a specific moment in time.
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)
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The PSQI is designed to provide a reliable, valid, and standardized measure of sleep quality. It is comprised of 19 self-rated questions and 5 questions rated by a bed partner or roommate. All items are brief and easy for most adolescents and adults to understand.
STOP Questionnaire
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The STOP questionnaire is a self-administered, 4-question survey that is designed to help identify obstructuve sleep apnea (OSA) in advance of surgery and thus prevent complications. The 4 STOP questions are related to snoring, tiredness during daytime, observed apnea, and high blood pressure.
Berlin Questionnaire
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The Berlin questionnaire consists of 3 categories related to the risk of having sleep apnea. Patients are classified as high risk or low risk based on their responses to the individual items and their overall scores in the symptom categories.
Apnea Risk Evaluation System Questionnaire (ARES Q) (see Fig 1)
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ARES is one page in length and can be filled out by the patient in less than 5 minutes without assistance. Data obtained include age, gender, height, weight and neck size; diagnosis of diseases associated with risk for OSA, or prior diagnosis of OSA; the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score; and a 5-scale response to the frequency rating for snoring, waking up choking, and having been told that he/she stopped breathing during sleep. The questionnaire is available in several languages.
BEARS: Pediatric Tool (see Table 5)
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BEARS is a simple, 5-item pediatric sleep screening instrument used to assess BEARS (B=Bedtime Issues, E=Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, A=Night Awakenings, R=Regularity and Duration of Sleep, S=Snoring) and identify sleep problems in the primary care setting.
Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ)
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The PSQ can be filled out by a parent/caregiver. These scales for childhood sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs), snoring, sleepiness, and behavior are valid and reliable instruments that can be used to identify SRBDs or associated symptom-constructs in clinical research when polysomnography is not feasible. The questionnaire is available in English and Spanish.
Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)
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The CSHQ is a sleep questionnaire designed by researchers at Brown University for children aged 4 to 12 years to screen for the most common sleep problems in that age group. The CSHQ focuses on sleep disorders common to this age group in 3 domains: dyssomnias (difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep), parasomnias (sleepwalking/ talking, night terrors, bedwetting, restless leg syndrome, etc), and sleep-disordered breathing. The questionnaire is available in multiple languages.
Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ)
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The CASQ was developed to be used as a reliable and quick way to measure the level of sleepiness in adolescents. The 16 questions can be completed within a few minutes.
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